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Portugal Portugal. Serbien Serbien. Luxemburg Luxemburg. Litauen Litauen. Welsh Law emphasised the payment of compensation for a crime to the victim, or the victim's kin, rather than punishment by the ruler.
English law has been the legal system of England and Wales since English law is regarded as a common law system, with no major codification of the law and legal precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive.
The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases.
The Senior Courts of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court. Minor cases are heard by the Magistrates' Courts or the County Court.
From that point, Wales became a legal unit in its own right, although it remains part of the single jurisdiction of England and Wales.
The Senedd has the authority to draft and approve laws outside of the UK Parliamentary system to meet the specific needs of Wales.
Under powers approved by a referendum held in March , it is empowered to pass primary legislation, at the time referred to as an Act of the National Assembly for Wales but now known as an Act of the Senedd in relation to twenty subjects listed in the Government of Wales Act such as health and education.
Through this primary legislation, the Welsh Government can then also enact more specific subordinate legislation. Wales has no women's prisons; female inmates are imprisoned in England.
Wales is a generally mountainous country on the western side of central southern Great Britain. Much of Wales' diverse landscape is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions.
The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. In over ships were destroyed off the coast of Wales in a hurricane that saw more than lives lost across Britain.
The first border between Wales and England was zonal, apart from around the River Wye, which was the first accepted boundary. The earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian , takes its name from the Cambrian Mountains , where geologists first identified Cambrian remnants.
The next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the Ordovician and Silurian , were named after ancient Celtic tribes from this area. Wales lies within the north temperate zone.
It has a changeable, maritime climate and is one of the wettest countries in Europe. Average annual coastal temperatures reach It becomes cooler at higher altitudes; annual temperatures decrease on average approximately 0.
The ocean current, bringing warmer water to northerly latitudes, has a similar effect on most of north-west Europe. As well as its influence on Wales' coastal areas, air warmed by the Gulf Stream blows further inland with the prevailing winds.
At low elevations, summers tend to be warm and sunny. Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing.
The south-western coast is the sunniest part of Wales, averaging over hours of sunshine annually, with Tenby , Pembrokeshire, its sunniest town.
The dullest time of year is between November and January. The least sunny areas are the mountains, some parts of which average less than hours of sunshine annually.
Coastal areas are the windiest, gales occur most often during winter, on average between 15 and 30 days each year, depending on location. Inland, gales average fewer than six days annually.
Rainfall patterns show significant variation. Snow falls several times each winter in inland areas but is relatively uncommon around the coast.
Wales' wildlife is typical of Britain with several distinctions. Because of its long coastline, Wales hosts a variety of seabirds.
The coasts and surrounding islands are home to colonies of gannets , Manx shearwater , puffins , kittiwakes , shags and razorbills.
In comparison, with 60 per cent of Wales above the m contour, the country also supports a variety of upland habitat birds, including raven and ring ouzel.
Today, mammals include shrews, voles, badgers, otters, stoats, weasels, hedgehogs and fifteen species of bat. Two species of small rodent, the yellow-necked mouse and the dormouse , are of special Welsh note being found at the historically undisturbed border area.
The polecat was nearly driven to extinction in Britain, but hung on in Wales and is now rapidly spreading. Feral goats can be found in Snowdonia.
The waters of south-west Wales of Gower, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay attract marine animals, including basking sharks , Atlantic grey seals , leatherback turtles, dolphins , porpoises , jellyfish, crabs and lobsters.
Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion, in particular, are recognised as an area of international importance for bottlenose dolphins , and New Quay has the only summer residence of bottlenose dolphins in the whole of the UK.
River fish of note include char , eel , salmon , shad , sparling and Arctic char , whilst the gwyniad is unique to Wales, found only in Bala Lake.
Wales is known for its shellfish, including cockles , limpet , mussels and periwinkles. Herring , mackerel and hake are the more common of the country's marine fish.
Wales has a number of plant species not found elsewhere in the UK, including the spotted rock-rose Tuberaria guttata on Anglesey and Draba aizoides on the Gower.
Over the last years, Wales has been transformed first from a predominantly agricultural country to an industrial, and now a post-industrial economy.
From the middle of the 19th century until the post-war era, the mining and export of coal was a dominant industry.
At its peak of production in , nearly , men and women were employed in the south Wales coalfield , mining 56 million tons of coal.
In the late s and early s, Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of foreign direct investment in the UK. Poor-quality soil in much of Wales is unsuitable for crop-growing so livestock farming has traditionally been the focus of farming.
The pound sterling is the currency used in Wales. Numerous Welsh banks issued their own banknotes in the 19th century.
The last bank to do so closed in ; since then, although banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland continue to have the right to issue banknotes in their own countries, the Bank of England has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in Wales.
As at , the last designs devoted to Wales saw production in It also links to northwest England, principally Chester. Beeching cuts in the s mean that most of the remaining network is geared toward east-west travel connecting with the Irish Sea ports for ferries to Ireland.
Trains in Wales are mainly diesel-powered but the South Wales Main Line branch of the Great Western Main Line used by services from London Paddington to Cardiff is undergoing electrification , although the programme has experienced significant delays and costs-overruns.
Cardiff Airport is the international airport of Wales. The Swansea to Cork service was cancelled in , reinstated in March , and withdrawn again in A distinct education system has developed in Wales.
The first grammar schools were established in Welsh towns such as Ruthin , Brecon and Cowbridge. The University College of Wales opened in Aberystwyth in Cardiff and Bangor followed, and the three colleges came together in to form the University of Wales.
The Welsh Department for the Board of Education followed in , which gave Wales its first significant educational devolution. In —, there were 1, maintained schools in Wales.
The population of Wales doubled from , in to 1,, in and had reached 2,, by Most of the increase came in the coal mining districts, especially Glamorganshire , which grew from 71, in to , in and 1,, in However, there was also large-scale migration into Wales during the Industrial Revolution.
The English were the most numerous group, but there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of other ethnic groups,   including Italians , who migrated to South Wales.
Many of these self-identify as Welsh. The population in stood at 2. However, in the early s, the population fell due to net migration out of Wales.
Since the s, net migration has generally been inward, and has contributed more to population growth than natural change.
Wales accounted for 4. The Welsh language is an Indo-European language of the Celtic family ;  the most closely related languages are Cornish and Breton.
Code-switching is common in all parts of Wales and is known by various terms, though none is recognised by professional linguists.
It has been influenced significantly by Welsh grammar and includes words derived from Welsh. According to John Davies, Wenglish has "been the object of far greater prejudice than anything suffered by Welsh".
The Census showed , people, The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with The Presbyterian Church of Wales was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in Non-Christian religions are small in Wales, making up approximately 2.
Wales has a distinctive culture including its own language, customs, holidays and music. Remnants of native Celtic mythology of the pre-Christian Britons was passed down orally by the cynfeirdd the early poets.
Jenkyn Thomas. Wales has one of the oldest unbroken literary traditions in Europe  going back to the sixth century and including Geoffrey of Monmouth and Gerald of Wales , regarded as among the finest Latin authors of the Middle Ages.
The former were professional poets who composed eulogies and elegies to their patrons while the latter favoured the cywydd metre.
Despite the extinction of the professional poet, the integration of the native elite into a wider cultural world did bring other literary benefits.
Developments in 19th-century Welsh literature include Lady Charlotte Guest 's translation into English of the Mabinogion, one of the most important medieval Welsh prose tales of Celtic mythology.
Parry-Williams and R. Williams Parry. The inter-war period is dominated by Saunders Lewis , for his political and reactionary views as much as his plays, poetry and criticism.
Thomas was one of the most notable and popular Welsh writers of the 20th century and one of the most innovative poets of his time.
Thomas — was the most important figure throughout the second half of the twentieth century. He "did not learn the Welsh language until he was 30 and wrote all his poems in English".
Amgueddfa Cymru — National Museum Wales was founded by royal charter in and is now a Welsh Government sponsored body. In April , the attractions attached to the National Museum were granted free entry by the Assembly, and this action saw the visitor numbers to the sites increase during — by Works of Celtic art have been found in Wales.
A number of illuminated manuscripts from Wales survive, including the 8th-century Hereford Gospels and Lichfield Gospels.
The 11th-century Ricemarch Psalter now in Dublin is certainly Welsh, made in St David's , and shows a late Insular style with unusual Viking influence.
Some Welsh artists of the 16th—18th centuries tended to leave the country to work, moving to London or Italy. Richard Wilson — is arguably the first major British landscapist.
Although more notable for his Italian scenes, he painted several Welsh scenes on visits from London. By the late 18th century, the popularity of landscape art grew and clients were found in the larger Welsh towns, allowing more Welsh artists to stay in their homeland.
Artists from outside Wales were also drawn to paint Welsh scenery, at first because of the Celtic Revival.
An Act of Parliament in provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom and the Cardiff School of Art opened in Graduates still very often had to leave Wales to work, but Betws-y-Coed became a popular centre for artists and its artists' colony helped form the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art in Christopher Williams , whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London.
Thomas E. Stephens  and Andrew Vicari had very successful careers as portraitists based respectively in the United States and France. Welsh painters gravitated towards the art capitals of Europe.
However, the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast lived in Wales for most of their lives, while remaining in touch with the wider art world.
Ceri Richards was very engaged in the Welsh art scene as a teacher in Cardiff and even after moving to London. He was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism.
The Kardomah Gang was an intellectual circle centred on the poet Dylan Thomas and poet and artist Vernon Watkins in Swansea, which also included the painter Alfred Janes.
South Wales had several notable potteries , one of the first important sites being the Ewenny Pottery in Bridgend , which began producing earthenware in the 17th century.
It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in George which then represented the Kingdom of England and Wales. The daffodil and the leek are both symbols of Wales.
The origins of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by David Lloyd George.
Peter's leek. The badge, known as the Prince of Wales's feathers , consists of three white feathers emerging from a gold coronet.
A ribbon below the coronet bears the German motto Ich dien I serve. Several Welsh representative teams, including the Welsh rugby union, and Welsh regiments in the British Army the Royal Welsh , for example use the badge or a stylised version of it.
There have been attempts made to curtail the use of the emblem for commercial purposes and restrict its use to those authorised by the Prince of Wales.
More than 50 national governing bodies regulate and organise their sports in Wales. Wales has hosted several international sporting events.
Although football has traditionally been the more popular sport in north Wales , rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness.
The five professional sides that replaced the traditional club sides in major competitions in were replaced in by the four regions: Cardiff Blues , Dragons , Ospreys and Scarlets.
A professional Welsh League existed from to Wales has had its own football league, the Welsh Premier League , since Wales became the UK's first digital television nation.
Its output was mostly Welsh-language at peak hours but shared English-language content with Channel 4 at other times.
Since the digital switchover in April , the channel has broadcast exclusively in Welsh. In several regional radio stations were broadcasting in Welsh: output ranged from two, two-minute news bulletins each weekday Radio Maldwyn , through to over 14 hours of Welsh-language programmes weekly Swansea Sound , to essentially bilingual stations such as Heart Cymru and Radio Ceredigion.
Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers available throughout Britain. The Western Mail is Wales' only national daily newspaper.
Traditional Welsh dishes include laverbread made from Porphyra umbilicalis , an edible seaweed ; bara brith fruit bread ; cawl a lamb stew ; cawl cennin leek soup ; and Welsh cakes.
Chicken tikka masala is the country's favourite dish while hamburgers and Chinese food outsell fish and chips as a takeaway. Wales is often referred to as "the land of song",  notable for its harpists, male choirs, and solo artists.
The main festival of music and poetry is the annual National Eisteddfod. The Llangollen International Eisteddfod provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform.
The Welsh Folk Song Society has published a number of collections of songs and tunes. Traditional dances include folk dancing and clog dancing.
The first mention of dancing in Wales is in a 12th-century account by Giraldus Cambrensis , but by the 19th century traditional dance had all but died out due to religious opposition.
Contemporary dance grew out of Cardiff in the s; one of the earliest companies, Moving Being , came from London to Cardiff in Wales has some unique celebratory days.
An early festivity was Mabsant when local parishes would celebrate the patron saint of their local church. It is celebrated on 25 January in a similar way to St Valentine's Day.
It has largely been replaced by Hallowe'en. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom. This article is about the country.
For other uses, see Wales disambiguation. Welsh English. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. Website wales. Main article: Etymology of Wales.
Main articles: History of Wales and Timeline of Welsh history. See also: Prehistoric Wales. Main article: Wales in the Roman era.
See also: Wales in the Early Middle Ages. See also: Glamorgan and Lower Swansea valley. Main article: Modern history of Wales.
Main article: Politics of Wales. Main article: Local government in Wales. See also: History of local government in Wales.
See also: Marcher Lord. Main article: Geography of Wales. See also: List of settlements in Wales by population and List of towns in Wales.
See also: Natural resources of Wales. National Parks. Main article: Geology of Wales. Main article: Economy of Wales. Main article: Transport in Wales.
Main article: Education in Wales. See also: List of universities in Wales and List of further education colleges in Wales.
Main article: Languages of Wales. Main article: Culture of Wales. Mythology and folklore. Mythology Matter of Britain Arthurian legend Mabinogion. Music and performing arts.
Radio Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Main article: Welsh mythology. Main article: Welsh art. See also: Architecture of Wales.
Main article: National symbols of Wales. Main article: Sport in Wales. Main article: Media in Wales. See also: List of newspapers in Wales.
Main article: Welsh cuisine. Main article: Music of Wales. See also: Cinema of Wales. Wales portal. It seems comparatively late as a place name, the nominative plural Lloegrwys , "men of Lloegr ", being earlier and more common.
The English were sometimes referred to as an entity in early poetry Saeson , as today but just as often as Eingl Angles , Iwys Wessex-men , etc.
Lloegr and Sacson became the norm later when England emerged as a kingdom. As for its origins, some scholars have suggested that it originally referred only to Mercia — at that time a powerful kingdom and for centuries the main foe of the Welsh.
It was then applied to the new kingdom of England as a whole see for instance Rachel Bromwich ed. But he does not have a role in the governance of Wales, even though his title might suggest that he does.
The meaning behind the Welsh motto". Retrieved 22 March Oxford Reference. Retrieved 26 July Retrieved 26 June Office for National Statistics.
Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 19 May Retrieved 10 October University of Leeds. Retrieved 8 August Angles and Britons: O'Donnell Lectures.
Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Northumbria, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. I Second ed.
London: Longmans, Green, and Co. In Phillimore, Egerton ed. Y Cymmrodor. London: Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion published Chambers Dictionary Revised ed.
New Dehli: Allied Publishers. Ashley Williams. Manchester United. Manchester United U Queens Park Rangers.
Jonathan Williams. George Thomas. Leicester City U Cardiff City Stadium.Wales winger David Brooks sealed a Nations League win that left Republic of Ireland manager Stephen Kenny still waiting for his first win after seven games in charge Slowakei Slowakei. The south-western coast is the sunniest part of Wales, averaging over hours of sunshine annually, with TenbyPembrokeshire, its sunniest town. Visit Wales Wwwspile. Republik Moldau. British Isles. Main article: Welsh cuisine. The Romans used their engineering technology to extract large amounts of goldcopper and leadas well as lesser amounts of zinc and silver. Retrieved 9 Rubbel Lose Main article: Modern history of Wales. Archived from the original on 9 May Although more notable for his Italian scenes, he painted several Welsh scenes on visits from London. He was Ec Kartenzahlung figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism. Trainer Julian Nagelsmann erfüllt das Partner Scout24 Stolz. Hildegard- Schulgesellschaft mbH. Insgesamt 17 infizierte Mitarbeiter und neun Patienten mit positivem Testergebnis in der St.